James M. DuBois, DSc, PhD
James M. DuBois, DSc, PhD
JAMES DUBOIS, Steven J. Bander Professor of Medical Ethics and Professionalism, Professor of Psychology, and Director of the Center for Clinical & Research Ethics at Washington University School of Medicine in the Division of General Medical Sciences. He is an Adjunct Professor in the Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics at Saint Louis University, where he was the inaugural Hubert Mäder Professor of Health Care Ethics and Director of the Bander Center for Medical Business Ethics. DuBois completed his PhD in philosophy at the International Academy of Philosophy in Liechtenstein and his DSc in psychology at the University of Vienna in Austria, where he focused on cross-cultural moral psychology. He directs the NIH-funded Professionalism and Integrity in Research Program (PI Program), which offers personalized assessments, a group workshop, and post-workshop coaching calls to help researchers operate professionally in today’s complex environments. He is the founding Editor (with Ana Iltis) of Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics: A Journal of Qualitative Research, published by Johns Hopkins University Press. He is a Board Certified Coach (BCC) specialized in career coaching for researchers.
His research interests include: research ethics in mental health, understanding and preventing ethical lapses in healthcare and research, ethics in organ transplantation, assessing moral development and education, and empirical research on ethical issues.
DuBois has served on numerous national committees on organ transplantation, including: the Institute of Medicine’s committee on increasing rates of organ donation; the Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation’s Forum on Donation after Cardiac Death; the United Network for Organ Sharing’s Regional Review Board for Livers; and Mid-America Transplant Services’ committee for non-heart-beating organ donation.
In the area of research ethics, he serves on a National Institute of Drug Abuse Data Safety Monitoring Board, the American Psychological Association’s Committee on Human Research, and is a member of the NIH study section on Social and Ethical Issues in Research. He served for 10 years on university and hospital institutional review boards (IRBs).
Selected Honors & Awards
• 2013 Health Improvement Institute’s Annual Innovation Award for Human Research Protections (for P.I. Program).
• 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Best New Journal in Medicine and Technology.
• 2010 Society of Research Administrator’s International Rose Award for best publication.
• 2003 Graduate Student Association award for Teaching Excellence.
Selected Grants & Contracts
Saint Louis University Contract (DuBois) 10/1/2014 – 9/30/2018
Research and Assessment in Medical Business Ethics
The goal of this contract is to support the research and assessment components of the Bander Center for Medical Business Ethics at SLU, which aims to develop evidence-based training programs for physicians, residents, and medical students. Projects include developing and validating a measure of professional decision-making in medicine (PDM)
1 ORIIR130002-01-00 (DuBois), 9/1/2013 – 8/31/2015
Validating Outcome Measures for Remediation of Research Wrongdoing , Office of Research Integrity, HHS
This project involves developing and validating two tests, the “How I Think about Research” test and the “Professional Decision-Making Measure” which respectively assess levels of self-serving bias and professional problem-solving styles in research.
1R01AG043527-01 (DuBois), 6/1/2013 – 5/31/2018
Preventing Ethical Disasters in the Practice of Medicine, NIH National Institute of Aging
This project will examine 300 cases of wrongdoing in medicine, including fraudulent unnecessary procedures, sexual abuse of patients, and improper prescribing of narcotics to identify predictive factors.
2UL1 TR000448-06 (Evanoff), 6/27/2012-5/31/2017
NIH/NCATS, Washington University Institute for Clinical and Translational Science
Completed Research Support
IR-ORI-14-009-018712 (DuBois) 8/1/2014 – 7/31/2016
The Role of Culture and Experience in the Perception of Research Regulations, Norms and Values, Office of Research Integrity, HHS
With a sample of 200 independent investigators and trainees funded by the NIH (100 foreign-born from Asia and 100 US-born), we will test the hypothesis that perceptions of diverse kinds of rules—regulations, norms of science, and questionable research practices—vary by cultural background and level of experience. We will also examine the impact of the perception of rules on professional decision-making in research, and explore mechanisms that would explain the impact of culture (in terms of values, experience in US, acculturation, personality traits, or exposure to unethical events).
UL1 RR024992-05S2 (Evanoff/DuBois), 09/17/2011 – 05/31/2013
Administrative Supplement to WU ICTS, Restoring Professionalism and Integrity in Research (RePAIR)
The project involved developing a curriculum for a remediation training program for investigators caught violating the rules for the responsible conduct of research.
UL1 RR024992 (Evanoff), 9/1/2007-8/31/2012
Washington University Institute for Clinical and Translational Science
Role: Subaward PI and Director of the newly establish Center for Clinical Research Ethics within Washington University’s Institute for Clinical and Translational Science (CTSA)
Office of Research Integrity Contract (DuBois), 5/1/2011-9/30/2012
Integrity in Research: A Casebook for Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research
We developed a casebook that will provide instructional case studies and role plays in 10 core areas of responsible conduct of research instruction. Cases draw heavily from research interviews with investigators. Available at: http://ori.hhs.gov/rcr-casebook-stories-about-researchers-worth-discussing
BF Foundation (DuBois), 1/1/2009-12/31/2011
Environmental Factors Associated with Professional Misconduct in Medical Research and Practice
Seed grant support to gather preliminary data on professional misbehavior in medical practice and research.
1R21RR026313-01 R21 NIH (DuBois), 1/1/2010-12/31/2011
Environmental Factors Predictive of Misbehavior in Collaborative Health Research
This 2-year project involved investigating, summarizing, and analyzing cases of professional
misbehavior in health research with the aim of identifying the factors that predict the severity of misbehavior.
1R13MH079690 NIH/NIMH (DuBois), 9/12007 – 8/31/2011
Best Practices in Mental Health Research Ethics Conference Series
A 5-year scientific conference series aimed at establishing evidence-based best practices in the ethical treatment of participants in mental health research.
Office of Research Integrity Contract (DuBois), 9/1/2007-8/31/2009
Responsible Conduct of Research Instructional Assessment Project: Part II, Development of a Test Bank
This 2-year project developed a test bank consisting of 125 multiple choice and 150 “pick 2” test items in the area of Responsible Conduct of Research, and reliability testing with graduate students.
Office of Research Integrity (DuBois), 5/18/2006 – 10/30/2007
RCR Instructional Assessment Program: Part I, Delphi Survey
Development of resources to assist responsible conduct of research (RCR) educators in constructing assessment instruments: We generated a consensus-based list of educational objectives and specific topics for RCR instruction and a bank of test items using a Delphi survey with 43 RCR experts.
Greenwall Foundation, Bioethics Program (DuBois), 7/1/07-6/30/08
Lay and Professional Attitudes Toward Uncontrolled Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death
We conducted focus groups and telephone surveys with community members and transplant professionals to explore the feasibility of an organ procurement program proposed by the Institute of Medicine.
1 T15 HL072453-01 (DuBois), 9/27/2002 – 8/31/2006
Ethical Issues in Behavioral Health Research
Developed an RCR educational program using a train-the-trainer approach. We produced an original CD-ROM with video interviews and focus groups and a textbook on ethical issues in mental health research.
Selected peer-reviewed articles since 2000
Baskin, C.R; R. Gatter; M.J. Campbell; J.M. Dubois; A.C. Waits. Self-Regulation of Science: What can we still learn from Asilomar? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. (In press).
DuBois, J.M., Strait, M., & Walsh, H. Is it time to share qualitative research data? Qualitative Psychology. (In press).
Kraus, E., DuBois, J.M. “Knowing Your Limits: A Qualitative Study of Physician and Nurse Practitioner Perspectives on NP Independence in Primary Care.” Journal of General Internal Medicine. (In press).
Volpe, R., Hopkins, M., DuBois, J.M. Mapping the terrain of ethics education for physician assistants: A Delphi consens panel report, Journal of Physician Assistant Education. (In press).
DuBois, J.M., Chibnall, J.T., Tait, R., Vander Wal, J., Baldwin, K., Antes, A.L., & Mumford, M. (2016). Professional decision-making in research (PDR) measure: The validity of a new measure. Science and Engineering Ethics, 22, 391-416.
Dineen, K.K., DuBois, J.M., “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Can Physicians Prescribe Opioids to Treat Pain Adequately While Avoiding Legal Sanction?” American Journal of Law and Medicine. (2016) 42(1), 7-52.
Antes, A.L., Chibnall, J.T., Baldwin, K.A., Tait, R.C., Vander Wal, J.S., DuBois, J.M. (2016) Making professional decisions in research: Measurement and key predictors, Accountability in Research, 23, 288-308.
DuBois, J.M., Chibnall, J.T., Anderson, E.E., Eggers, M., Baldwin, K., & Vasher, M. (2016). A Mixed-Method Analysis of Reports on 100 Cases of Improper Prescribing of Controlled Substances. Journal of Drug Issues, 46(4), 457-472.
DuBois, J.M., Chibnall, J.T., Tait, R.C., & Vander Wal, J.S. (2016). Lessons from Researcher Rehab. Nature, 534, 173-175.
Beth Prusaczyk MSW, Steven M. Cherney MD, Christopher R. Carpenter MD, MS & James M. DuBois DSc, PhD (2016): Informed Consent to Research with Cognitively Impaired Adults: Transdisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities, Clinical Gerontologist, DOI: 10.1080/07317115.2016.1201714
Antes, A.L., Mart A., & DuBois, J.M. (2016). Are leadership and management essential for good research? An interview study of genetic researchers. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. doi: 10.1177/1556264616668775.
Brown, K.M., Drake, B.F., Gehlert, S., Wolf, L.E., DuBois, J., Seo, J., Woodward, K., Perkins, H., Goodman, M.S., Kaphingst, K.A., “Differences in preferences for models of consent for biobanks between Black and White women,” Journal of Community Genetics, 2016 Jan;7(1):41-9. [Epub ahead of print]
Brown, K.M., Drake, B.F., Gehlert, S., Wolf, L.E., DuBois, J.M., Seo, J.,…Kaphingst, K.A., (2016) “Differences in preferences for models of consent for biobanks between black and white women.” Journal of Community Genetics. 7(1):41-49
DuBois, J.M., Hine, A., Kennett, M., Kostelecky, K., Norris, J., et al. (2015) “Anticipating HIV Vaccines: Sketching an agenda for public health ethics and policy in the United States.” St. Louis University Journal of Health Law and Policy. 2015; 8(2):225-258
DuBois JM, Chibnall JT, Gibbs J. (2016) “Compliance Disengagement in Research: Development and Validation of a New Measure. Science and Engineering Ethics.” 22(4):965-88.
DuBois, J.M., Antes, A. (2015) “In Guanine we trust: genetic testing and the sense of coherence.” Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics. 5(3):237-244
DuBois, J.M., Chibnall, J., Tait, R., et al.(2015) “Professional decision-making in research (PDR): the validity of a new measure.” Science and Engineering Ethics. 1-26.
Kraus, E.M., Bakanas, E., Gursahani, K., DuBois, J.M., “Establishing the need and identifying goals for a curriculum in medical business ethics: A survey of students and residents at two medical centers in Missouri.” BMC Research Notes. 2014; 7: 708 (7 pp).
DuBois, J.M., Kraus, E., Gusahani, K., Mikulec, A., Bakanas, E., “Curricular priorities for business ethics in medical practice and research: Recommendations from Delphi consensus panels.” BMC Medical Education. 2014; 14: 235 (9pp).
Hartz, S.M., Olfson, E., Culverhouse, R., DuBois, J.M., … Beirut, L., “Return of individual genetic results in a high-risk sample: enthusiasm and positive behavioral change.” Genetics in Medicine. Advance online publication 28 August 2014. doi:10.1038/gim.2014.110.
Antes, A.L., Dubois, J.M., (2014) “Aligning objectives and assessment in responsible conduct of research instruction.” Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 15, 108-116.
Iltis, A.S., Misra, S., Dunn, L.B., Brown, G.K., Campbell, A., Earll, S.A.,…DuBois, J.M. (2013) “Addressing risks to advance mental health research,” JAMA Psychiatry, 70(12):1363-1371.
DuBois, J.M. (2013) “Understanding research misconduct: a comparative analysis of 120 cases of professional wrongdoing,” Accountability in Research, 20(5-6):320-338.
Gries, C.J., B. W.D., DuBois, J.M., C. C.C., Sonny, D. (2013) “An official American Thoracic Society/International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/Society of Critical Care Medicine/Association of Organ and Procurement Organizations/United Network of Organ Sharing Statement: ethical and policy considerations in organ donation after circulatory determination of death,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 188(1):103-9.
DuBois, J.M., Kraus, E.M., Mikulec, A.A., Cruz-Flores, S., and Bakanas, E. (2013) “A humble task: restoring virtue in medicine in an age of conflicted interests,” Academic Medicine, 88(7): 924-928.
DuBois, J.M. et al. (2013) “Understanding the severity of wrongdoing in healthcare delivery and research: lessons learned from a historiometric study of 100 cases,” American Journal of Bioethics, Primary Research, 4(3): 39-48.
DuBois, J.M., Anderson, E.E., Chibnall, J. (2013) “Assessing the need for a research ethics remediation program,” Clinical and Translational Science, 6(3): 209-213.
DuBois, J.M., et al., (2012) “Environmental factors contributing to wrongdoing in medicine: a criterion-based review of studies and cases,” Ethics & Behavior, 22 (3): 163-188.
DuBois, J.M., Kraus, E., Vasher, M. (2012) “The Development of a taxonomy of wrongdoing in medical practice and research,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42 (1): 89-98.
Anderson, E.E., Solomon S., Heitman E., DuBois, J.M., Fischer, C.B., Kost, R.G., Lawless, M.E., Ramsey, C., Jones, B., Ammerman, A., and Ross, L.F. (2012) “Research ethics education for community engaged research: a review and research agenda,” Journal for Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 7(2): 3-19.
DuBois, J.M., et al. (2012) “Restoring balance: a consensus paper on the protection of ‘vulnerable’ research participants,” American Journal of Public Health, 102(12): 2220-5.
Anderson, E.E., DuBois, J.M. (2012) “IRB decision-making with imperfect knowledge: how empirical research on research ethics can help,” Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, 40(4): 951-969.
DuBois, J.M., H. Bante, & Hadley, W. (2011). “Ethics in psychiatric research: a review of 25-years of NIH-funded empirical research,” American Journal of Bioethics—Primary Research, 2(4): 5-17.
DuBois, J.M., et al. (2011). Ethical issues in mental health research: the case for community engagement, Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 24: 208-214.
DuBois, J.M., Schilling, D., Heitman, E., Steneck, N., Kon, A. (2010) “Instruction in the responsible conduct of research: an inventory of programs and materials within CTSAs,” Clinical and Translational Science, 3(3): 109-111.
DuBois, J.M. (2010) “The ethics of creating and responding to doubts about death critieria,” Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 35: 365-380.
DuBois, J.M., Dueker, J.M. (2009). “Teaching and assessing the responsible conduct of research: a delphi consensus panel report,” Journal of Research Administration, XL, 1: 49-70.
DuBois, J.M., Waterman, A., Iltis, A., Anderson, J. (2009). “Is rapid organ recovery a good idea? An exploratory study of the public’s knowledge and attitudes,” American Journal of Transplantation, 9: 2392-2399.
DuBois, J.M.(2009) “Increasing rates of organ donation: exploring the institute of medicine’s boldest recommendation,” Journal of Clinical Ethics, 20(1):13-22
DuBois, J.M., Cottler, L., Callahan, C., (2009) “The attitudes of females in drug court toward additional safeguards in HIV prevention research,” Prevention Science, 10: 345-352.
DuBois, J.M., Dueker, J., Anderson, E., & Campbell, J. (2008). “Development and assessment of a NIH-funded research ethics training program,” Academic Medicine, 83, 6: 596-603.
DuBois, J.M., Volpe, R.L., Rangel, E.K. (2008). “Hidden empirical research ethics: a review of three health journals from 2005-2006.” Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 3 (3): 7-18.
DuBois, J.M., Delmonico, F.L., D’Alessandro, A.M. (2007) “When organ donors are still patients: is the pre-mortem use of heparin ethically acceptable?,” American Journal of Critical Care, 16(4): 396-400
Anderson, E. & DuBois, J.M. (2006) “The need for evidence-based research ethics: a review of the substance abuse literature,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 85 (2-3): 95-105.
DuBois, J.M., Anderson, E. (2006) “Attitudes toward death criteria and organ donation among healthcare personnel and the general public,” Progress in Transplantation, 16(1): 65-73
DuBois, J.M. (2004) “Is compliance a professional virtue of researchers? reflections on promoting the responsible conduct of research,” Ethics and Behavior, 14(4): 383-395
DuBois, J.M. (2003) “Does the public support the organ donation using high-brain-death criteria? a telephone survey of 1,000 US head of household,” Journal of Clinical Ethics, 14: 26-35
DuBois, J.M., Fitzgerald, R.D., Shaheen, F.A.M. (2002) “Support for organ procurement: national, professional, and religious correlates among medical personnel in Austria and the kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” Transplant Proceedings, 34: 3042-3044
DuBois, J.M., Ciesla, J.E. (2002) “Ethics education in US medical schools: a study syllabi,” Academic Medicine, 77(5): 69-74
DuBois, J.M. (2002) “When is informed consent appropriate in educational research? ethical and regulatory issues,” IRB: Ethics & Human Research, 24(1): 1-8
DuBois, J.M. (2002) “Does organ procurement cause the death of donors?,” Issues in Law and Medicine, 2(3): 411-451
Books relevant to research ethics or mental health
DuBois, J.M., editor and co-author, (2013). The Office of Research Integrity Casebook: Stories about Researchers Worth Discussing. Available at: http://ori.hhs.gov/rcr-casebook-stories-about-researchers-worth-discussing
DuBois, J.M. (2008). Ethics in Mental Health Research: Principles, Guidance, and Cases. New York: Oxford University Press. (2nd Edition forthcoming in 2015)
Editor/translator/introduction author: Frankl, V.E. (2004). On the Theory and Therapy of Mental Disorders (New York: Brunner-Routledge).
I have published more than 50 additional book chapters and commentaries or short pieces in journals such as Academic Medicine, American Journal of Bioethics, Critical Care Medicine, IRB: Ethics and Human Research, Issues in Law and Medicine, and Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics.